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Both sides committed the worst atrocities of the Napoleonic Wars during this phase of the conflict. The vicious guerrilla fighting in Spain, largely absent from the French campaigns in Central Europe, severely disrupted the French lines of supply and communication.
Although France maintained roughly , troops in Iberia during the Peninsular War, the vast majority were tied down to garrison duty and to intelligence operations.
After the invasion of Russia in , the number of French troops in Spain vastly declined as Napoleon needed reinforcements to conserve his strategic position in Europe.
By , after scores of battles and sieges throughout Iberia, the Allies had managed to push the French out of the peninsula. The impact of the Napoleonic invasion of Spain and ousting of the Spanish Bourbon monarchy in favor of his brother Joseph had an enormous impact on the Spanish empire.
In Spanish America many local elites formed juntas and set up mechanisms to rule in the name of Ferdinand VII of Spain , whom they considered the legitimate Spanish monarch.
After four years on the sidelines, Austria sought another war with France to avenge its recent defeats.
Austria could not count on Russian support because the latter was at war with Britain , Sweden , and the Ottoman Empire in Frederick William of Prussia initially promised to help the Austrians, but reneged before conflict began.
In the early morning of 10 April, leading elements of the Austrian army crossed the Inn River and invaded Bavaria.
The early Austrian attack surprised the French; Napoleon himself was still in Paris when he heard about the invasion.
In response, Napoleon came up with a plan to cut off the Austrians in the celebrated Landshut Maneuver. On 13 May, Vienna fell for the second time in four years, although the war continued since most of the Austrian army had survived the initial engagements in Southern Germany.
By 17 May, the main Austrian army under Charles had arrived on the Marchfeld. Charles kept the bulk of his troops several miles away from the river bank in hopes of concentrating them at the point where Napoleon decided to cross.
The Austrians enjoyed a comfortable numerical superiority over the French throughout the battle; on the first day, Charles disposed of , soldiers against only 31, commanded by Napoleon.
By the end of the fighting, the French had lost Aspern but still controlled Essling. A sustained Austrian artillery bombardment eventually convinced Napoleon to withdraw his forces back onto Lobau Island.
Both sides inflicted about 23, casualties on each other. After the setback at Aspern-Essling, Napoleon took more than six weeks in planning and preparing for contingencies before he made another attempt at crossing the Danube.
Napoleon finished off the battle with a concentrated central thrust that punctured a hole in the Austrian army and forced Charles to retreat.
Austrian losses were very heavy, reaching well over 40, casualties. In the Kingdom of Holland , the British launched the Walcheren Campaign to open up a second front in the war and to relieve the pressure on the Austrians.
The British army only landed at Walcheren on 30 July, by which point the Austrians had already been defeated. The Walcheren Campaign was characterized by little fighting but heavy casualties thanks to the popularly dubbed " Walcheren Fever ".
Over British troops were lost in a bungled campaign, and the rest withdrew in December Emperor Francis wanted to wait and see how the British performed in their theater before entering into negotiations with Napoleon.
Once it became apparent that the British were going nowhere, the Austrians agreed to peace talks. Metternich and Archduke Charles had the preservation of the Habsburg Empire as their fundamental goal, and to this end they succeeded by making Napoleon seek more modest goals in return for promises of friendship between the two powers.
Napoleon turned his focus to domestic affairs after the war. Hoping to cement the recent alliance with Austria through a family connection, Napoleon married the Archduchess Marie Louise , who was 18 years old at the time.
On 20 March , Marie Louise gave birth to a baby boy, whom Napoleon made heir apparent and bestowed the title of King of Rome. His son never actually ruled the empire, but historians still refer to him as Napoleon II.
The leaders had a friendly personal relationship after their first meeting at Tilsit in A major strain on the relationship between the two nations became the regular violations of the Continental System by the Russians, which led Napoleon to threaten Alexander with serious consequences if he formed an alliance with Britain.
By , advisers to Alexander suggested the possibility of an invasion of the French Empire and the recapture of Poland. In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patriots, Napoleon termed the war the Second Polish War —the First Polish War had been the Bar Confederation uprising by Polish nobles against Russia in Polish patriots wanted the Russian part of Poland to be joined with the Duchy of Warsaw and an independent Poland created.
This was rejected by Napoleon, who stated he had promised his ally Austria this would not happen. A brief attempt at resistance was made at Smolensk in August; the Russians were defeated in a series of battles, and Napoleon resumed his advance.
The Russians again avoided battle, although in a few cases this was only achieved because Napoleon uncharacteristically hesitated to attack when the opportunity arose.
The Russians eventually offered battle outside Moscow on 7 September: The French showed themselves to be worthy of victory, but the Russians showed themselves worthy of being invincible".
The Russian army withdrew and retreated past Moscow. Napoleon entered the city, assuming its fall would end the war and Alexander would negotiate peace.
After five weeks, Napoleon and his army left. In early November Napoleon got concerned about loss of control back in France after the Malet coup of After the Battle of Berezina Napoleon managed to escape but had to abandon much of the remaining artillery and baggage train.
On 5 December, shortly before arriving in Vilnius, Napoleon left the army in a sledge. The French suffered in the course of a ruinous retreat, including from the harshness of the Russian Winter.
There was a lull in fighting over the winter of —13 while both the Russians and the French rebuilt their forces; Napoleon was able to field , troops.
Napoleon assumed command in Germany and inflicted a series of defeats on the Coalition culminating in the Battle of Dresden in August Despite these successes, the numbers continued to mount against Napoleon, and the French army was pinned down by a force twice its size and lost at the Battle of Leipzig.
This was by far the largest battle of the Napoleonic Wars and cost more than 90, casualties in total. The Allies offered peace terms in the Frankfurt proposals in November Napoleon would remain as Emperor of France, but it would be reduced to its "natural frontiers".
That meant that France could retain control of Belgium, Savoy and the Rhineland the west bank of the Rhine River , while giving up control of all the rest, including all of Spain and the Netherlands, and most of Italy and Germany.
Metternich told Napoleon these were the best terms the Allies were likely to offer; after further victories, the terms would be harsher and harsher.
Napoleon, expecting to win the war, delayed too long and lost this opportunity; by December the Allies had withdrawn the offer. When his back was to the wall in he tried to reopen peace negotiations on the basis of accepting the Frankfurt proposals.
The Allies now had new, harsher terms that included the retreat of France to its boundaries, which meant the loss of Belgium.
Napoleon would remain Emperor, however he rejected the term. The British wanted Napoleon permanently removed, and they prevailed, but Napoleon adamantly refused.
Napoleon withdrew back into France, his army reduced to 70, soldiers and little cavalry; he faced more than three times as many Allied troops. British armies pressed from the south, and other Coalition forces positioned to attack from the German states.
The leaders of Paris surrendered to the Coalition in March Napoleon had advanced as far as Fontainebleau when he learned that Paris was lost.
When Napoleon proposed the army march on the capital, his senior officers and marshals mutinied. Napoleon asserted the army would follow him, and Ney replied the army would follow its generals.
While the ordinary soldiers and regimental officers wanted to fight on, without any senior officers or marshals any prospective invasion of Paris would have been impossible.
Bowing to the inevitable, on 4 April Napoleon abdicated in favour of his son, with Marie Louise as regent. However, the Allies refused to accept this under prodding from Alexander, who feared that Napoleon might find an excuse to retake the throne.
The Allied Powers having declared that Emperor Napoleon was the sole obstacle to the restoration of peace in Europe, Emperor Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares that he renounces, for himself and his heirs, the thrones of France and Italy, and that there is no personal sacrifice, even that of his life, which he is not ready to do in the interests of France.
Done in the palace of Fontainebleau, 11 April They gave him sovereignty over the island and allowed him to retain the title of Emperor.
Napoleon attempted suicide with a pill he had carried after nearly being captured by the Russians during the retreat from Moscow.
Its potency had weakened with age, however, and he survived to be exiled, while his wife and son took refuge in Austria.
A few months into his exile, Napoleon learned that his ex-wife Josephine had died in France. He was devastated by the news, locking himself in his room and refusing to leave for two days.
Separated from his wife and son, who had returned to Austria, cut off from the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fontainebleau, and aware of rumours he was about to be banished to a remote island in the Atlantic Ocean,  Napoleon escaped from Elba, in the brig Inconstant on 26 February with men.
The 5th Regiment was sent to intercept him and made contact just south of Grenoble on 7 March Napoleon approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse and, when he was within gunshot range, shouted to the soldiers, "Here I am.
Kill your Emperor, if you wish". The two then marched together towards Paris with a growing army. On 13 March, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared Napoleon an outlaw.
Four days later, Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia each pledged to put , men into the field to end his rule. Napoleon arrived in Paris on 20 March and governed for a period now called the Hundred Days.
By the start of June the armed forces available to him had reached ,, and he decided to go on the offensive to attempt to drive a wedge between the oncoming British and Prussian armies.
Napoleon returned to Paris and found that both the legislature and the people had turned against him. Realizing his position was untenable, he abdicated on 22 June in favour of his son.
When Napoleon heard that Prussian troops had orders to capture him dead or alive, he fled to Rochefort , considering an escape to the United States.
British ships were blocking every port. They also took the precaution of sending a garrison of soldiers, with an experienced officer Edward Nicolls , to uninhabited Ascension Island , which lay between St.
Napoleon was moved to Longwood House on Saint Helena in December ; it had fallen into disrepair, and the location was damp, windswept and unhealthy.
Napoleon often complained of the living conditions in letters to the governor and his custodian, Hudson Lowe ,  while his attendants complained of "colds, catarrhs , damp floors and poor provisions.
With a small cadre of followers, Napoleon dictated his memoirs and grumbled about conditions. While in exile, Napoleon wrote a book about Julius Caesar , one of his great heroes.
There were rumours of plots and even of his escape, but in reality no serious attempts were made. Napoleon confined himself for months on end in his damp and wretched habitation of Longwood.
On 15 December , a state funeral was held. The cause of his death has been debated. Antommarchi did not sign the official report.
His description of Napoleon in the months before his death led Sten Forshufvud in a paper in Nature to put forward other causes for his death, including deliberate arsenic poisoning.
Arsenic is a strong preservative, and therefore this supported the poisoning hypothesis. Forshufvud and Weider observed that Napoleon had attempted to quench abnormal thirst by drinking large amounts of orgeat syrup that contained cyanide compounds in the almonds used for flavouring.
They maintained that the potassium tartrate used in his treatment prevented his stomach from expelling these compounds and that his thirst was a symptom of the poison.
Their hypothesis was that the calomel given to Napoleon became an overdose, which killed him and left extensive tissue damage behind.
There have been modern studies that have supported the original autopsy finding. All samples had high levels of arsenic, approximately times higher than the current average.
However he had a keen appreciation of the power of organised religion in social and political affairs, and paid a great deal of attention to bending it to his purposes.
Cardinal Fesch performed the wedding. Napoleon was excommunicated by the Catholic Church, but later reconciled with the Church before his death in It solidified the Roman Catholic Church as the majority church of France and brought back most of its civil status.
The hostility of devout Catholics against the state had now largely been resolved. It did not restore the vast church lands and endowments that had been seized during the revolution and sold off.
As a part of the Concordat, he presented another set of laws called the Organic Articles. He selected the bishops and supervised church finances.
Napoleon and the pope both found the Concordat useful. Similar arrangements were made with the Church in territories controlled by Napoleon, especially Italy and Germany.
Napoleon said in April , "Skillful conquerors have not got entangled with priests. They can both contain them and use them".
French children were issued a catechism that taught them to love and respect Napoleon. The Pope was only released in when the Allies invaded France.
In January , Napoleon personally forced the Pope to sign a humiliating "Concordat of Fontainebleau". Napoleon emancipated Jews , as well as Protestants in Catholic countries and Catholics in Protestant countries, from laws which restricted them to ghettos , and he expanded their rights to property, worship, and careers.
In an Assembly of Jewish notables was gathered by Napoleon to discuss 12 questions broadly dealing with the relations between Jews, Christians and other issues dealing with the Jewish ability to integrate into the general French society.
Later, after the questions were answered in a satisfactory way according to the Emperor, a " great Sanhedrin " was brought together to transform the answers into decisions that would form the basis of the future status of the Jews in France and the rest of the Empire Napoleon was building.
He stated, "I will never accept any proposals that will obligate the Jewish people to leave France, because to me the Jews are the same as any other citizen in our country.
It takes weakness to chase them out of the country, but it takes strength to assimilate them". One year after the final meeting of the Sanhedrin, on 17 March , Napoleon placed the Jews on probation.
Several new laws restricting the citizenship the Jews had been offered 17 years previously were instituted at that time. However, despite pressure from leaders of a number of Christian communities to refrain from granting Jews emancipation, within one year of the issue of the new restrictions, they were once again lifted in response to the appeal of Jews from all over France.
Historians emphasize the strength of the ambition that took Napoleon from an obscure village to command of most of Europe. During his early schooling years he would be harshly bullied by classmates for his Corsican identity and control of the French language.
To withstand the stress he became domineering, eventually developing an inferiority complex. He could rapidly dictate a series of complex commands to his subordinates, keeping in mind where major units were expected to be at each future point, and like a chess master, "seeing" the best plays moves ahead.
Napoleon maintained strict, efficient work habits, prioritizing what needed to be done. He cheated at cards, but repaid the losses; he had to win at everything he attempted.
Unlike many generals, Napoleon did not examine history to ask what Hannibal or Alexander or anyone else did in a similar situation.
Critics said he won many battles simply because of luck; Napoleon responded, "Give me lucky generals", aware that "luck" comes to leaders who recognize opportunity, and seize it.
He reorganized France itself to supply the men and money needed for wars. At the Battle of Auerstadt in , King Frederick William III of Prussia outnumbered the French by 63, to 27,; however, when he was told, mistakenly, that Napoleon was in command, he ordered a hasty retreat that turned into a rout.
Napoleon has become a worldwide cultural icon who symbolises military genius and political power. Martin van Creveld described him as "the most competent human being who ever lived".
He has been portrayed in hundreds of films and discussed in hundreds of thousands of books and articles. When met in person, many of his contemporaries were surprised by his apparently unremarkable physical appearance in contrast to his significant deeds and reputation, especially in his youth, when he was consistently described as small and thin.
Joseph Farington, who observed Napoleon personally in , commented that "Samuel Rogers stood a little way from me and His nose was not very large, but straight, with a slight, hardly noticeable bend.
The hair on his head was dark reddish-blond; his eyebrows and eyelashes were much darker than the colour of his hair, and his blue eyes, set off by the almost black lashes, gave him a most pleasing expression The man I saw was of short stature, just over five feet tall, rather heavy although he was only 37 years old.
During the Napoleonic Wars he was taken seriously by the British press as a dangerous tyrant , poised to invade.
Napoleon was mocked in British newspapers as a short tempered small man and he was nicknamed "Little Boney in a strong fit". Helena a British island , since he would have most likely been measured with an English yardstick rather than a yardstick of the Old French Regime.
He also habitually wore usually on Sundays the blue uniform of a colonel of the Imperial Guard Foot Grenadiers blue with white facings and red cuffs.
This was in contrast to the complex uniforms with many decorations of his marshals and those around him. In his later years he gained quite a bit of weight and had a complexion considered pale or sallow, something contemporaries took note of.
Novelist Paul de Kock, who saw him in on the balcony of the Tuileries, called Napoleon "yellow, obese, and bloated". He is fat, rather what we call pot-bellied, and although his leg is well shaped, it is rather clumsy He is very sallow, with light grey eyes, and rather thin, greasy-looking brown hair, and altogether a very nasty, priestlike-looking fellow.
He is often portrayed wearing a large bicorne hat with a hand-in-waistcoat gesture—a reference to the painting produced in by Jacques-Louis David.
Napoleon instituted various reforms, such as higher education, a tax code , road and sewer systems, and established the Banque de France , the first central bank in French history.
He negotiated the Concordat of with the Catholic Church, which sought to reconcile the mostly Catholic population to his regime. It was presented alongside the Organic Articles , which regulated public worship in France.
In May , he instituted the Legion of Honour , a substitute for the old royalist decorations and orders of chivalry , to encourage civilian and military achievements; the order is still the highest decoration in France.
Napoleon participated actively in the sessions of the Council of State that revised the drafts. The development of the code was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law legal system with its stress on clearly written and accessible law.
Other codes " Les cinq codes " were commissioned by Napoleon to codify criminal and commerce law; a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which enacted rules of due process.
Waterloo will erase the memory of so many victories. Dieter Langewiesche described the code as a "revolutionary project" which spurred the development of bourgeois society in Germany by the extension of the right to own property and an acceleration towards the end of feudalism.
Napoleon reorganised what had been the Holy Roman Empire, made up of more than a thousand entities, [ quantify ] into a more streamlined forty-state Confederation of the Rhine ; this helped promote the German Confederation and the unification of Germany in The movement toward national unification in Italy was similarly precipitated by Napoleonic rule.
Napoleon implemented a wide array of liberal reforms in France and across Continental Europe, especially in Italy and Germany, as summarized by British historian Andrew Roberts:.
The ideas that underpin our modern world—meritocracy, equality before the law, property rights, religious toleration, modern secular education, sound finances, and so on—were championed, consolidated, codified and geographically extended by Napoleon.
To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire.
Napoleon directly overthrew remnants of feudalism in much of western Continental Europe. He liberalised property laws , ended seigneurial dues , abolished the guild of merchants and craftsmen to facilitate entrepreneurship, legalised divorce, closed the Jewish ghettos and made Jews equal to everyone else.
The Inquisition ended as did the Holy Roman Empire. The power of church courts and religious authority was sharply reduced and equality under the law was proclaimed for all men.
In the field of military organisation , Napoleon borrowed from previous theorists such as Jacques Antoine Hippolyte, Comte de Guibert , and from the reforms of preceding French governments, and then developed much of what was already in place.
He continued the policy, which emerged from the Revolution, of promotion based primarily on merit. Corps replaced divisions as the largest army units, mobile artillery was integrated into reserve batteries, the staff system became more fluid and cavalry returned as an important formation in French military doctrine.
These methods are now referred to as essential features of Napoleonic warfare. The increased importance of artillery after stemmed from his creation of a highly mobile artillery force, the growth in artillery numbers, and changes in artillery practices.
Under Napoleon, a new emphasis towards the destruction, not just outmanoeuvring, of enemy armies emerged.
Invasions of enemy territory occurred over broader fronts which made wars costlier and more decisive. The political effect of war increased; defeat for a European power meant more than the loss of isolated enclaves.
Near- Carthaginian peaces intertwined whole national efforts, intensifying the Revolutionary phenomenon of total war. The official introduction of the metric system in September was unpopular in large sections of French society.
He made French the only official language. He left some primary education in the hands of religious orders, but he offered public support to secondary education.
All students were taught the sciences along with modern and classical languages. Napoleon hoped to use religion to produce social stability.
In the political realm, historians debate whether Napoleon was "an enlightened despot who laid the foundations of modern Europe or, instead, a megalomaniac who wrought greater misery than any man before the coming of Hitler".
The Continental powers as late as were willing to give him nearly all of his gains and titles, but some scholars maintain he was overly aggressive and pushed for too much, until his empire collapsed.
Napoleon ended lawlessness and disorder in post-Revolutionary France. Napoleon institutionalised plunder of conquered territories: Chandler , a foremost historian of Napoleonic warfare, wrote in that, "Nothing could be more degrading to the former [Napoleon] and more flattering to the latter [Hitler].
The comparison is odious. Napoleon left great and lasting testimonies to his genius—in codes of law and national identities which survive to the present day.
Adolf Hitler left nothing but destruction. The large and growing historiography in French, English, Russian, Spanish and other languages has been summarized and evaluated by numerous scholars.
Strict censorship, controlling aspects of the press, books, theater, and art, was part of his propaganda scheme, aimed at portraying him as bringing desperately wanted peace and stability to France.
Specifically targeting his civilian audience, Napoleon fostered a relationship with the contemporary art community, taking an active role in commissioning and controlling different forms of art production to suit his propaganda goals.
In England, Russia and across Europe --though not in France—Napoleon was a popular topic of caricature. They played a key role in collective political defiance of the Bourbon restoration monarchy in — People from different walks of life and areas of France, particularly Napoleonic veterans, drew on the Napoleonic legacy and its connections with the ideals of the revolution.
Helena and Napoleon as an inspiration for patriotism, individual and collective liberties, and political mobilization manifested themselves in seditious materials, displaying the tricolor and rosettes.
Datta shows that, following the collapse of militaristic Boulangism in the late s, the Napoleonic legend was divorced from party politics and revived in popular culture.
In their attempts to represent the emperor as a figure of national unity, proponents and detractors of the Third Republic used the legend as a vehicle for exploring anxieties about gender and fears about the processes of democratization that accompanied this new era of mass politics and culture.
International Napoleonic Congresses take place regularly, with participation by members of the French and American military, French politicians and scholars from different countries.
Napoleon was responsible for spreading the values of the French Revolution to other countries, especially in legal reform and the abolition of serfdom.
After the fall of Napoleon, not only was the Napoleonic Code retained by conquered countries including the Netherlands, Belgium, parts of Italy and Germany, but has been used as the basis of certain parts of law outside Europe including the Dominican Republic, the US state of Louisiana and the Canadian province of Quebec.
Napoleon could be considered one of the founders of modern Germany. After dissolving the Holy Roman Empire , he reduced the number of German states from to less than 50, prior to German Unification.
A byproduct of the French occupation was a strong development in German nationalism. Napoleon also significantly aided the United States when he agreed to sell the territory of Louisiana for 15 million dollars during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson.
That territory almost doubled the size of the United States, adding the equivalent of 13 states to the Union.
Bonaparte often sent her love letters while on his campaigns. Napoleon had his own affairs too: She became known as "Cleopatra". Despite his divorce from Josephine, Napoleon showed his dedication to her for the rest of his life.
When he heard the news of her death while on exile in Elba, he locked himself in his room and would not come out for two full days. Thus he had married into a German royal and imperial family.
Her great-aunt had been executed in France, while Napoleon had fought numerous campaigns against Austria all throughout his military career.
However, she seemed to warm up to him over time. After her wedding, she wrote to her father: I respond to his love sincerely. There is something very fetching and very eager about him that is impossible to resist".
Napoleon and Marie Louise remained married until his death, though she did not join him in exile on Elba and thereafter never saw her husband again.
He became Napoleon II in and reigned for only two weeks. He was awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in and died of tuberculosis aged 21, with no children.
Napoleon acknowledged one illegitimate son: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Napoleon I.
For other uses, see Napoleon disambiguation. For other uses, see Napoleon Bonaparte disambiguation. Les Invalides , Paris , France. Marie Louise of Austria m.
Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars. French campaign in Egypt and Syria. French Consulate and War of the Second Coalition.
Coronation of Napoleon I and Napoleonic Wars. War of the Third Coalition. Franco-Ottoman alliance and Franco-Persian alliance. War of the Fourth Coalition.
War of the Fifth Coalition. French invasion of Russia. War of the Sixth Coalition. Death mask of Napoleon and Retour des cendres. Napoleon and the Catholic Church.
Napoleon and the Jews and Napoleon and Protestants. Cultural depictions of Napoleon. Napoleonic weaponry and warfare and Military career of Napoleon Bonaparte.
History of the metric system , Mesures usuelles , and Units of measurement in France. Bonaparte Crossing the Alps , realist version by Paul Delaroche in Influence of the French Revolution.
Titles and styles of Napoleon. See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus. Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte — 8. Maria Colonna Bozzi — 4.
Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte — Maria Anna Tusoli — Carlo Maria Buonaparte — Giuseppe Maria Paravicini 5. Maria Saveria Paravicini —bef.
Angelo Agostino Salineri Maria Angela Salineri Napoleon I, Emperor of the French — Giovanni Girolamo Ramolino —? Giovanni Agostino Ramolino Maria Laetitia Boggiano 6.
Giovanni Geronimo Ramolino — Angela Maria Peri Maria Letizia Ramolino — Giovanni Antonio Pietrasanta Giuseppe Maria Pietrasanta Paola Brigida Sorba 7.
Angela Maria Pietrasanta — He is less realistically portrayed on a charger in the latter work. At least four genuine death masks of Napoleon are known to exist: This and other more minor attacks have led historians to debate whether he had epilepsy and, if so, to what extent.
Penguin Group, , Introduction. Archived from the original on 22 October Palgrave Macmillan, , p. The Age of Napoleon.
Greenwood Publishing Group, , pp. Yale University Press , , p. The Rise and Fall of an Empire. Osprey Publishing, , p. Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe.
Palgrave Macmillan, , Conclusion. A Life , p. Archived from the original on 10 February Retrieved 20 February Journal of Molecular Biology Research.
Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 18 February Archived from the original on 1 July Retrieved 23 January Archived from the original on 12 January Archived from the original on 30 July Retrieved 16 February Archived from the original on 28 November Archived from the original on 25 February The Child and Childhood in Folk Thought: The Child in Primative Culture , p.
Archived from the original on 20 March A Brief History of Europe from — Archived from the original on 4 May Penguin Group, , p. Mowat, The Diplomacy of Napoleon is a survey online ; for a recent advanced diplomatic history, see Paul W.
Schroeder, The Transformation of European Politics — pp. Chandler, The Campaigns of Napoleon. The Encyclopedia of Warfare: From Earliest Time to the Present Day.
Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original on 18 November Napoleonic Era in Europe pp.
How Far From Austerlitz? Archived from the original on 21 October Retrieved 22 April Clarendon Press , pp. Archived from the original on 18 July Archived from the original on 13 February Napoleon and the World War of Lessons in Coalition Warfighting.
Archived from the original on 23 September The Fall of Napoleon: Volume 1, The Allied Invasion of France, — Archived from the original on 21 September Archived from the original on 22 December Retrieved 28 August Archived from the original on 25 June Archived from the original on 21 August Retrieved 5 April The Spirit of the English Magazines: Translated by Barzani, Arshan 1 ed.
Archived from the original on 3 December Archived from the original on 18 September Retrieved 24 March Archived from the original on 19 September Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 21 January Retrieved 20 January Archived from the original on 22 September The New York Times.
Retrieved 30 January From the Concordat to the Excommunication". Archived from the original on 24 January Archived from the original on 2 May Tegenstanders vonden dat Napoleon geen rekening hield met de zo verschillende lokale gewoonten en afspraken.
Invoering van de dienstplicht riep eveneens weerstand op, zeker toen de vraag naar soldaten door de maar voortdurende oorlogen toenam.
Na de val van Napoleon dacht niemand erover om de Napoleontische veranderingen weer ongedaan te maken. Zo bleef de Code Napoleon bestaan, net als veel andere moderniseringen.
In de winter van valt het Franse leger over de bevroren rivieren Nederland binnen. Ze veroveren met ons gemak ons land. Bekijk de clip over de Franse Tijd!
Napoleon Bonaparte is een generaal in het Franse leger. In zet hij de Franse regering aan de kant. Napoleon neemt de macht over in Frankrijk en in alle gebieden die Frankrijk had veroverd, dus ook in Nederland.
In kroont hij zichzelf tot keizer van Frankrijk. Dit is Lodewijk Napoleon, de broer van Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon wil in alle landen die hij veroverd heeft iemand uit zijn familie op de troon zetten.
Ze moeten hem helpen zijn grote rijk te besturen. Lodewijk wil graag een goede koning zijn. Hij neemt meteen lessen om de Nederlandse taal te leren.
En om zijn nieuwe koninkrijk goed te leren kennen gaat hij veel op reis door Nederland. Als in Leiden een kruitschip ontploft, haast Lodewijk zich meteen naar de ramp plek om te helpen.
Hij geeft geld en verzorgt gewonden. Hij helpt zelfs mee met puinruimen. Maar Napoleon Bonaparte vindt dat Lodewijk Napoleon te weinig naar hem luistert en te veel denkt aan wat goed voor Nederland is.
Daarom laat hij Lodewijk in terugkomen naar Frankrijk. Napoleon lijft Holland bij Frankrijk in. Vanaf dat moment is Nederland een onderdeel van het Franse keizerrijk.
Dit is het Paleis op de Dam. Misschien heb je het wel eens gezien toen je in Amsterdam was. Het gebouw komt uit en is gebouwd als stadhuis.
In wordt het gebouw het koninklijk paleis van Lodewijk Napoleon. In lijft zijn broer Keizer Napoleon Bonaparte Nederland bij Frankrijk in en wordt het zelfs even een keizerlijk paleis.
Hoe komt het dat wij allemaal aan de rechterkant van de weg rijden? Rond rijdt iedereen op zijn paard of in zijn koets nog kris kras door elkaar.
Napoleon bedenkt dat wanneer iedereen aan de rechterkant van de weg rijdt, er minder ongelukken gebeuren. Daarom voert hij dat als regel in.
Dit zijn soldaten uit het leger van Napoleon. Zie je de kleuren van hun uniformen? Die zijn heel opvallend. Heel anders dan de camouflerende kleuren van de uniformen die soldaten nu dragen.
De kleuren van het pak van de soldaten van Napoleon zijn heel belangrijk. In de tijd van Napoleon worden oorlogen op een andere manier gevoerd dan nu.
Nu zijn er raketten of scherpschutters die van een grote afstand kunnen vuren. Dat is dan wel anders: Op het slagveld is het een drukte van jewelste.
Door de damp van het kruit waar de soldaten mee schieten zie je maar weinig. De felle kleuren zijn dus hard nodig om te weten wie je vijand en wie je vriend is!
Aan Napoleon danken veel mensen hun familienaam, want hij zorgt ervoor dat iedereen wordt ingeschreven bij de burgerlijke stand. Daarvoor moet iedere familie die nog geen achternaam heeft een familienaam kiezen.
De burgerlijke stand is de plek op het gemeentehuis waar bijgehouden wordt wie geboren, getrouwd of gestorven is. Door het invoeren van de burgerlijke stand weet Napoleon precies wie er in zijn rijk wonen.
Dat is handig, want zo kan Napoleon precies uitzoeken wie hij bijvoorbeeld kan oproepen om in zijn leger te dienen en wie hij belasting kan laten betalen.
Napoleon verandert veel in de landen die bij zijn keizerrijk horen. Iedereen is voortaan gelijk voor de wet en een rechtszaak is altijd openbaar.
De Nederlanders reageren verschillend op deze vernieuwingen. Het nieuwe wetboek is volgens hen veel beter; het maakt bijvoorbeeld geen verschil meer tussen gewone mensen en edelen.
Ook met de dienstplicht voor jonge mannen zijn veel mensen het niet eens. Zeker niet als er steeds meer oorlogen komen waar soldaten voor nodig zijn.
Als Napoleon in wordt verslagen, denkt niemand erover om zijn veranderingen weer af te schaffen. Het nieuwe wetboek blijft bestaan, net als veel andere moderniseringen.
Daarom voert hij veel oorlogen. Voor die oorlogen heeft hij heel veel soldaten nodig. Om al die soldaten te verzamelen, voert Napoleon de dienstplicht in.
Hij verzint een lotingsysteem: Elke man krijgt een lot. Als je een laag nummer hebt, moet je het leger in. Napoleon voert in elk land waar hij de baas is de kilogram, de liter en de meter in.
Heel handig, want tot die tijd zijn maten en gewichten in veel landen anders. Engeland heeft Napoleon nooit veroverd, vandaar dat ze daar nog met andere maten en gewichten rekenen en nog altijd links rijden.
Vlakbij Brussel, op de uitgestrekte velden bij Waterloo, wordt Napoleon Bonaparte voorgoed verslagen door Britse, Pruisische en Nederlandse soldaten De slag bij Waterloo.
Er staan hier legerkampen waar soldaten zich voorbereiden op de vele oorlogen die Napoleon voert. Belastingen, de Burgerlijke stand, de meter, de liter en de kilo, het zijn maar een paar dingen die we hebben overgehouden aan de die Franse tijd.
Wat betekent die Franse tijd voor Nederland? En hoe is het om soldaat te zijn in de Franse tijd? Mustafa duikt in het leven van een soldaat en laat zich keuren door de chirurgijn.
Napoleon Bonaparte was een generaal in het Franse leger. In zette hij de Franse regering aan de kant. Maar hij wilde over heel Europa regeren.
Daarom voerde hij veel oorlogen. Vanaf regeerde hij als keizer over bijna heel Europa. Engeland, Oostenrijk en Rusland waren de voornaamste tegenstanders van Napoleon.
Keizer Napoleon Bonaparte van Frankrijk heerste aan het begin van de negentiende eeuw bijna over heel Europa. Hij is heel belangrijk geweest voor de Europese geschiedenis.
Napoleon veranderde veel in de landen die bij zijn keizerrijk hoorden. In werd Lodewijk Napoleon door zijn broer, keizer Napoleon, benoemd tot koning van Holland.
Hij probeerde de eenheid van Nederland en het vaderlands gevoel te versterken. De geschiedenis, taal en cultuur van de Nederlanders stonden centraal in zijn beleid.
Lodewijk Napoleon was net als zijn broer voorstander van een centralistisch bestuur. De nationale politiek van Lodewijk Napoleon botste echter met de imperialistische politiek van zijn broer.
Onder Franse invloed werden in ons land diverse instituten ingesteld die nog steeds bestaan, zoals het Burgerlijk Wetboek, de Burgerlijke Stand en het Kadaster.
Ook voerde Napoleon nieuwe, standaard maten en gewichten in, zoals de meter en de kilogram. Aan het einde van de achttiende eeuw stonden er in Nederland twee groepen tegenover elkaar.
De aanhangers van stadhouder Willem de Vijfde stonden aan de ene kant. Aan de andere kant stonden de patriotten.
De patriotten vonden dat de stadhouder teveel macht had. Dat waren verenigingen van gewapende burgers. Ze wilden de macht overnemen. Stadhouder Willem de Vijfde voelde zich al snel niet meer veilig in Den Haag en trok zich terug in Nijmegen.
In stuurde de koning van Pruisen zijn leger om de orde te herstellen. Hij deed dat op verzoek van zijn zus Wilhelmina, de vrouw van Willem de Vijfde.
De vrijkorpsen van de patriotten konden niet op tegen de goed getrainde Pruisische soldaten. Ze verloren de opstand. Maar in de zomer van trok het Franse leger via het zuiden de Republiek binnen.
De Nederlandse patriotten waren hier erg blij mee. Zij zagen de Franse als bevrijders. Willem de Vijfde bedacht nog een plan om de Fransen tegen te houden.
Hij liet dijken doorsteken waardoor het gebied tussen de rivieren de Lek en de Linge onder water kwam te staan. Omdat het land onder water stond, konden de Fransen niet verder.
Maar in de winter bevroor het gebied. In januari vroor het zo hard dat heel de Lek was dichtgevroren. De Franse soldaten trokken daarom over de Lek en hadden toegang tot Den Haag.
Willem de Vijfde was inmiddels al met zijn gezin naar Engeland gevlucht. Zo kwam er in alsnog een einde aan de Republiek. Napoleon was een militair.
In zette hij de Franse regering aan de kant en nam hij de macht over. In Frankrijk en in alle gebieden die Frankrijk had veroverd, dus ook in Nederland.
Daarna startte Napoleon als generaal oorlogen tegen landen die hij nog niet veroverd had zoals Oostenrijk, Engeland en Rusland. In kwam Napoleon met zijn leger aan in Moskou, de hoofdstad van Rusland.
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