Auf dieser Seite sind Daten, Fakten und historische Wappen zum Verein Hamburger SV dargestellt. Nachrichten und Informationen auf einen Blick. Artikelsammlung von gerganapassy.eu zum Thema Hamburger SV. Hier finden Sie alle Informationen über die Bundesliga-Mannschaft des HSV. Daten, Fakten und Steckbriefe aller Profis.
Established in and based in Clayton, Victoria , the company modified Holden models such as the standard-wheelbase Commodore , long-wheelbase Caprice and commercial Ute for domestic and export sale.
Over the years, Holden Special Vehicles had also modified other non-Holden cars within the General Motors portfolio, in very low volumes.
However, in the early years, some have retailed under the Holden name in Australia whereas most cars for export other than in New Zealand and Singapore have retailed under different names namely, Vauxhall and Chevrolet Special Vehicles.
Over the years, HSV has built an array of modified vehicles, most of which have been based on Holden models powered by either Holden or GM sourced V8 engines.
It went on to win the Bathurst race. The cars will be sold with a factory warranty via selected Holden dealerships. To cope with the expansion, HSV will move into new premises, also in Clayton, in early It expects to eventually boost job numbers from to staff once production ramps up.
The Avalanche has been built over the following series:. It was based on the mainstream Commodore range and has been the entry-level HSV model except between and , when that role was filled by the Manta range.
In , HSV introduced a higher specification known as the "R8". The Clubsport has been built over the following series:.
The Grange has been built over the following series:. With the exception of the Z Series, when it was not part of the range it was available by special order only , the GTS has been built over the following series:.
Its distinguishing features have been high-performance V8 engines and full body kits. It is said that former HSV managing director, John Crennan, coined the name for the vehicle after reading a book on Aboriginal Australians.
In , HSV introduced a higher "R8" specification. This Maloo was originally limited to units, later increased to plus 10 for export to New Zealand. The HSV Senator is a full size luxury sports sedan that was first introduced in It was based on the Holden Berlina and Calais twins.
From , HSV offered a wagon variant based solely on the Berlina, since the Calais was never built in that body shape and a higher specification model known as the "Senator Signature".
The Senator has been built over the following series:. It was also a car produced to address the public disappointment caused by HSV canning its ambitious HRT project previewed in Developed under contract to Holden, it was released in March Modifications were made to the standard Holden 5.
Upgrades were also made to the suspension, tyres and brakes. Although a total production of cars was original planned for racing homologation reasons, only were ultimately produced in non-sequential order meaning that build number may exist while build number may not.
The lighter Ute body provided a performance edge over the other HSV sedan counterparts. Models based on the long-wheelbase Holden VQ Caprice were released soon after.
LSD were standard across the range. Upgrades were made to the 5. The VS series of introduced mild styling tweaks and a new three-spoke alloy wheel design.
A value-oriented Manta was established as the base HSV model to broaden appeal. In , a limited edition flagship GTS-R was created which came standard with the 5.
Available only in a polarising bright yellow colour known as "XU-3 Yellah" with carbon fibre inserts and large rear wing, the GTS-R engine could be blueprinted for more power.
A Senator Signature wagon was introduced and was mechanically identical to the sedan counterpart. The VS ute bodyshell was retained for the Maloo.
There were only Manta units produced, after which this model was dropped from production due to its close competition with the donor Commodore SS model.
The range also comprised the XU8, which was built in limited numbers to carry last-ever Australian-made V8 engine. The recent release of the new WH series Caprice in allowed the Grange to gain its new look.
This series also saw the introduction of a supercharged V6 model named the XU6, which ultimately did not prove successful and was described as being agricultural against new competitors such as the Magna VR-X , which was rated a superior product in a direct comparison.
Again, the Maloo remained available using the VS ute body shell. Acting on feedback from owners, HSV strove to differentiate its range of vehicles from the standard Holden offerings.
To achieve this, HSV introduced more distinguishing bodykit and interior designs. A Maloo R8 model was added with similar upgraded specification to the Clubsport R8.
This series saw the addition of the XU6-Maloo, which was essentially a utility version of the XU6 sedan. This model was shortly discontinued due to a lack of demand.
The special edition SV was introduced to replace the Senator Toe-control links for the rear suspension was now fitted across the range in line with the Holden VX series update, for improved handling.
Coinciding with the release of the VY Commodore , HSV produced the Y Series models adopting an even more distinguishing design and an alphabetical designation to further distance itself from donor Holden.
Finally, the Senator range was split into entry-level Senator and high-end luxury Senator Signature models. Extensive modifications to the base VE Commodore sheetmetal and interior were introduced, most notably the unique LED taillights and distinctive side vents.
This model featured lower paint-outs, sill plates and extra chrome accents on the side mirrors and door handles. This car is based on the GTS, but carries a 7.
The range received many cosmetic changes with new front and rear bumpers, twin-nostriled bonnet from the Pontiac G8 and a new range of wheel designs.
The Series 2 has a very distinctive look set of daytime running lights standard across the E2 range. The new engines have also improved fuel economy by 4.
New is the intelligent launch controls, Competition mode ESC and Extended cruise control systems which are all standard for E2 models excluding intelligent launch control which is only available with a manual transmission.
This last version of the E Series was released on 21 September These models were useful not only because they were more intuitive than raw RGB values, but also because the conversions to and from RGB were extremely fast to compute: Consequently, these models and similar ones have become ubiquitous throughout image editing and graphics software since then.
Some of their uses are described below. Nonetheless, it is worth reviewing those definitions before leaping into the derivation of our models.
Brightness and colorfulness are absolute measures, which usually describe the spectral distribution of light entering the eye, while lightness and chroma are measured relative to some white point, and are thus often used for descriptions of surface colors, remaining roughly constant even as brightness and colorfulness change with different illumination.
Saturation can be defined as either the ratio of colorfulness to brightness or that of chroma to lightness. In each of our models, we calculate both hue and what this article will call chroma , after Joblove and Greenberg , in the same way—that is, the hue of a color has the same numerical values in all of these models, as does its chroma.
If we take our tilted RGB cube, and project it onto the "chromaticity plane " perpendicular to the neutral axis, our projection takes the shape of a hexagon, with red, yellow, green, cyan, blue, and magenta at its corners fig.
More precisely, both hue and chroma in this model are defined with respect to the hexagonal shape of the projection. The chroma is the proportion of the distance from the origin to the edge of the hexagon.
This ratio is the difference between the largest and smallest values among R , G , or B in a color. Thus if we add or subtract the same amount from all three of R , G , and B , we move vertically within our tilted cube, and do not change the projection.
For points which project onto the origin in the chromaticity plane i. Mathematically, this definition of hue is written piecewise: Sometimes, neutral colors i.
These definitions amount to a geometric warping of hexagons into circles: After such a transformation, hue is precisely the angle around the origin and chroma the distance from the origin: The atan2 function, a "two-argument arctangent", computes the angle from a cartesian coordinate pair.
Notice that these two definitions of hue H and H 2 nearly coincide, with a maximum difference between them for any color of about 1. The two definitions of chroma C and C 2 differ more substantially: While the definition of hue is relatively uncontroversial—it roughly satisfies the criterion that colors of the same perceived hue should have the same numerical hue—the definition of a lightness or value dimension is less obvious: Here are four of the most common fig.
All four of these leave the neutral axis alone. The creators of these models considered this a problem for some uses. For example, in a color selection interface with two of the dimensions in a rectangle and the third on a slider, half of that rectangle is made of unused space.
Now imagine we have a slider for lightness: To solve problems such as these, the HSL and HSV models scale the chroma so that it always fits into the range [0, 1] for every combination of hue and lightness or value, calling the new attribute saturation in both cases fig.
To calculate either, simply divide the chroma by the maximum chroma for that value or lightness. The HSI model commonly used for computer vision, which takes H 2 as a hue dimension and the component average I "intensity" as a lightness dimension, does not attempt to "fill" a cylinder by its definition of saturation.
Instead of presenting color choice or modification interfaces to end users, the goal of HSI is to facilitate separation of shapes in an image.
Saturation is therefore defined in line with the psychometric definition: See the Use in image analysis section of this article.
Using the same name for these three different definitions of saturation leads to some confusion, as the three attributes describe substantially different color relationships; in HSV and HSI, the term roughly matches the psychometric definition, of a chroma of a color relative to its own lightness, but in HSL it does not come close.
Even worse, the word saturation is also often used for one of the measurements we call chroma above C or C 2. The original purpose of HSL and HSV and similar models, and their most common current application, is in color selection tools.
At their simplest, some such color pickers provide three sliders, one for each attribute. Most, however, show a two-dimensional slice through the model, along with a slider controlling which particular slice is shown.
Several color choosers from the s are shown to the right, most of which have remained nearly unchanged in the intervening time: Some more sophisticated variants are designed for choosing whole sets of colors, basing their suggestions of compatible colors on the HSL or HSV relationships between them.
Most web applications needing color selection also base their tools on HSL or HSV, and pre-packaged open source color choosers exist for most major web front-end frameworks.
HSL and HSV are sometimes used to define gradients for data visualization , as in maps or medical images.
Image editing software also commonly includes tools for adjusting colors with reference to HSL or HSV coordinates, or to coordinates in a model based on the "intensity" or luma defined above.
In particular, tools with a pair of "hue" and "saturation" sliders are commonplace, dating to at least the lates, but various more complicated color tools have also been implemented.
For instance, the Unix image viewer and color editor xv allowed six user-definable hue H ranges to be rotated and resized, included a dial -like control for saturation S HSV , and a curves -like interface for controlling value V —see fig.
Video editors also use these models. These have been copied widely, but several imitators use the HSL e. The applications of such tools include object detection, for instance in robot vision ; object recognition , for instance of faces , text , or license plates ; content-based image retrieval ; and analysis of medical images.
For the most part, computer vision algorithms used on color images are straightforward extensions to algorithms designed for grayscale images, for instance k-means or fuzzy clustering of pixel colors, or canny edge detection.
At the simplest, each color component is separately passed through the same algorithm. It is important, therefore, that the features of interest can be distinguished in the color dimensions used.
Starting in the late s, transformations like HSV or HSI were used as a compromise between effectiveness for segmentation and computational complexity.
They can be thought of as similar in approach and intent to the neural processing used by human color vision, without agreeing in particulars: In recent years, such models have continued to see wide use, as their performance compares favorably with more complex models, and their computational simplicity remains compelling.
While HSL, HSV, and related spaces serve well enough to, for instance, choose a single color, they ignore much of the complexity of color appearance.
Essentially, they trade off perceptual relevance for computation speed, from a time in computing history high-end s graphics workstations, or mids consumer desktops when more sophisticated models would have been too computationally expensive.
If we plot the RGB gamut in a more perceptually-uniform space, such as CIELAB see below , it becomes immediately clear that the red, green, and blue primaries do not have the same lightness or chroma, or evenly spaced hues.
Furthermore, different RGB displays use different primaries, and so have different gamuts. If we take an image and extract the hue, saturation, and lightness or value components, and then compare these to the components of the same name as defined by color scientists, we can quickly see the difference, perceptually.
For example, examine the following images of a fire breather fig. The original is in the sRGB colorspace. Though none of the dimensions in these spaces match their perceptual analogs, the value of HSV and the saturation of HSL are particular offenders.
Such perversities led Cynthia Brewer, expert in color scheme choices for maps and information displays, to tell the American Statistical Association:.
Computer science offers a few poorer cousins to these perceptual spaces that may also turn up in your software interface, such as HSV and HLS. Perceptual color dimensions are poorly scaled by the color specifications that are provided in these and some other systems.
For example, saturation and lightness are confounded, so a saturation scale may also contain a wide range of lightnesses for example, it may progress from white to green which is a combination of both lightness and saturation.
These flaws make the systems difficult to use to control the look of a color scheme in a systematic manner. If much tweaking is required to achieve the desired effect, the system offers little benefit over grappling with raw specifications in RGB or CMY.
If these problems make HSL and HSV problematic for choosing colors or color schemes, they make them much worse for image adjustment. HSL and HSV, as Brewer mentioned, confound perceptual color-making attributes, so that changing any dimension results in non-uniform changes to all three perceptual dimensions, and distorts all of the color relationships in the image.
In the example below fig. Notice how the hue-shifted middle version without such a correction dramatically changes the perceived lightness relationships between colors in the image.
The creators of HSL and HSV were far from the first to imagine colors fitting into conic or spherical shapes, with neutrals running from black to white in a central axis, and hues corresponding to angles around that axis.
Similar arrangements date back to the 18th century, and continue to be developed in the most modern and scientific models.
First, we compute chroma, by multiplying saturation by the maximum chroma for a given lightness or value. Next, we find the point on one of the bottom three faces of the RGB cube which has the same hue and chroma as our color and therefore projects onto the same point in the chromaticity plane.Several color choosers from the s are shown to the right, most of which have remained nearly unchanged in the intervening time: This car is based on the GTS, but carries a 7. Clayton, VictoriaAustralia. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Retrieved 22 November Retrieved 18 April However, it was still used in the AWD models of the Z series. This series also saw the introduction of a supercharged Darts berlin model named the XU6, which ultimately did not prove successful and was described as being agricultural against new competitors such eishockey oberliga süd playoffs the Magna VR-Xwhich was rated a superior product in a direct comparison. Mouse over the swatches below to see the RGand B values for each swatch in a tooltip. The following is a chronological list of all HSV models and build numbers, where united states based online casino sinceincluding limited editions and dealer specials. Over the years, Holden Special Vehicles had also modified other non-Holden cars within the General Motors portfolio, in very low volumes. With the exception of the Z Series, when it was not part of the range it was available by special order hsv nthe GTS has been built over the following series:. Alternative representations of elderberry deutsch RGB color model. This Maloo was originally limited to units, later increased to plus 10 for export to New Zealand.
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